Project Actions

Action A.1 Request of authorizations M1-M18Action B.1 Design and construction of the prototype M1-M18Action B.2 Supply and mechanical pre-treatment M1-M40Action B.3 Demonstration of the hydrometallurgical process M19-M40Action B.4 Commercial validation M10-M40Action B.5 Replicability and transferability analysis M6-M40Action C.1 Monitoring and environmental and socio-economic impact M6-M40Action D.1 Dissemination M1-M40Action E.1 Management M1-M40

Action A.1 Request of authorizations M1-M18

The documentation request by the local authorities for the construction plants and their operation will be filled with the info provided by action B1.
Progress 61%

Responsible: Eco Recycling
Others partners: S.E.VAL


Action B.1 Design and construction of the prototype M1-M18

B1.1 Basic and detailed engineering

It will include the draw up of a detailed process flowsheet, equipment design, tendering, plant construction and commissioning.

B1.2 Constuction, commissioning and start-up

A manual describing the prototype start-up and operation procedures will be included as a part of the detailed engineering. Once the engineering will be completed, the procurement phase will start.

Progress 61%

Responsible: Eco Recycling
Others partners: Technosind


Action B.2 Supply and mechanical pre-treatment M1-M40

B2.1 Supply

An amount of 3 tons of Li-ion and NiMH batteries will be supplied for the demonstration activity.

B2.2 Mechanical pre-treatment

Extensive tests will be performed to identify the parameters that allow maximizing the recovery and purity ofthe output material. In total, 3 tons of LIB will be processed, generating 450 kg of aluminium and copper, 460 kg of steel scraps, 360 kg plastics and paper, 1350 kg of electrode powders.

Progress 0%

Responsible: S.E.VAL
Others partners: Uniroma


Action B.3 Demonstration of the hydrometallurgical process M19-M40

B3.1 Process optimization

Eco Recycling will operate the plant, installed at the its site, to optimize leaching, graphite recovery and purification. Operating parameters of any unit will be optimized. Electrochemical characterizations of the produced Graphite and NMC will be performed by Uniroma.

B3.2 Optimized operation

Main objective of this sub-task is to demonstrate the proposed process by production of graphite and NMC under optimized operation. 660 kg of NMC oxide and 470 kg of graphite will be produced by processing 3 tons of batteries. NMC oxides with 3 different formulations of commercial interest will be produced.

Progress 0%

Responsible: Eco Recycling
Others partners: Uniroma


Action B.4 Commercial validation M10-M40

B4.1 Economic feasibility analysis

The analysis will entail quantifying the costs associated to plant construction, reactant and energy consumption, waste disposal (the impacts of the disposal of the sewage waste sludge containing Cu, Aland Fe will be assessed by the LCA performed in action B4). Economic feasibility will be assessed by comparing computed costs with the incomes resulting from the sale of recovered products (steel, non-ferrous metals, Graphite and NMC oxide). Process simulation will be implemented to obtain the economic figures of the different process options and evaluate profitability as process scale varies. Simulated process scales will be selected by analysing the potential flux of spent Li-ion and Ni-MH batteries that can be collected by S.E.VAL and in Italy. A business plan will be elaborated targeting the industrial application in Italy. A quotation will be also asked for the process products. Samples of these materials will be supplied to stakeholders. The outcomes of the activity will be exploited to elaborate a business plan targeting the industrial scale application of the proposed technology in Italy.

B4.2 Testing of the electrodic materials

The produced NMC oxides and the Graphite will be used by LITHOPS to assemble new Li-ion cells. A number of Li-ion cells not lower than 20 with capacity around 10-20 Ah (corresponding to about 200g of NMC oxide and 100 g of graphite per cell) will be produced by employing the materials recovered. The assembled cells will be benchmarked against identical cells prepared with the active materials currently available on the market.

Progress 0%

Responsible: Eco Recycling (B4.1), LITHOPS (B4.2)
Others partners: Eco Recycling (B4.1)


Action B.5 Replicability and transferability analysis M6-M40

Replicability of the developed technology outside Italy will be targeted during and after the end of the project. To this purpose, the involvement of large battery recycling companies operating in different EU member states and already cooperating with Eco Recycling in the framework of the H2020 CROCODILE project will be targeted. These include ACCUREC and SNAM, which are large recycling companies operating in Germany and France, respectively, already performing pyro and/or hydrometallurgical treatment of Li-ion batteries at industrial scale. This cooperation is expected to boost in the medium term the replication of the proposed technology in France and Germany. Moreover, an implementation of the proposed process to  treat of end-of-life LiFePO4 batteries will be investigated. LiFePO4 batteries are already collected by S.E.VAL. The main objective will be demonstrating the possibility to effectively produce a precursor of the cathode material without separating the different metals, which is a costly operation.

Progress 0%

Responsible: Uniroma
Others partners: Technosind


Action C.1 Monitoring and environmental and socio-economic impact M6-M40

C1.1 Monitoring and evaluation of plant design and construction

Key Project Indicators identified for the proposal will be updated during project running in order toassess the project impacts.

C1.2 Monitoring and evaluation of prototype performances

This sub-task will be aimed at monitoring and evaluating the performance of prototype constructed in actionB1 every 1000Kg of treated batteries.

C1.3 Monitoring and evaluation of material and product performance

This sub-task will include analysing the chemical composition of products generated by plant operation inactions B3. Performing this analysis is propaedeutic to the evaluation of product marketability conducted in action B4.1

C1.4 Monitoring and evaluation of environmental impact

This sub-task will be aimed at monitoring and evaluating the environmental impact of the proposed process. LCA analysis will be performed to characterize the environmental advantages derived by recovering materials with the proposed process in place of implementing a hydrometallurgical process where Co, Ni and Mn are separately recovered as high-purity salt. The LCA report will provide a clear analysis of the impacts of any stage of the waste management chain, including the waste battery collection and pre-treatment, residual waste use, as well as the impacts of materials and wastes from the hydrometallurgical and synthesis processes.

C1.5 Socio-economic study

Key Project Indicators to be monitored will be the direct and indirect employment growth resulting from implementation of proposed actions. This evaluation will not only include an analysis of the number of persons to be employed for project implementation but will also be aimed at predicting the employment growth that can be determined by the establishment and diffusion of developed technology.

Progress 0%

Responsible: Eco Recycling
Others partners: -


Action D.1 Dissemination M1-M40

D1.1 Dissemination and communication

Creation, management and updating of project website and social media, layman’s report, notice boards, target group mailing list, press releases, leaflets. Presentation at conferences, publication in scientific journals, final conference and Open day.

D1.2 Networking

Networking with at least 2 other EU-projects, including LIFE projects starting from the current networks in which proposers are involved. Networking will be preliminarily based on the exchange of mails and the organization of web meetings. Representatives of the identified project’s consortia will be invited to visit the DRONE demonstration sites and a visit of DRONE representatives to the sites of the identified projects will be foreseen. Specific travels cost for the networking is included in travel item.

Progress 27%

Responsible: Eco Recycling
Others partners: All partners


Action E.1 Management M1-M40

Implementation of project management ensuring high quality of project implementation, results and dissemination:

E1.1 Project management structure

E1.2 Management of Monitoring Indicators

E1.3 After LIFE plan

E1.4 Monitoring the application of green procurement principles

E1.5 Preparation of certification and implementation policies

Progress 27%

Responsible: Technosind
Others partners: Each partner will be responsible for the internal administration and will delegate a representative (Project Manager) to participate in the project Steering committee.