Policy implications

The planned actions of the LIFE DRONE project will contribute to the implementation of the following EU directives:

  • Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators – It fixes a mandatory 45% batteries collection rate and 50% recycling efficiency for Li-ion batteries. The proposed process increases the recovery of Ni, Mn and Co by 60 kg/ton of batteries, thus contributing to the recycling efficiency objective. Further, the project contributes to the collection objective by increasing the income from Li-ion batteries recycle, which can sustain new collection programs.
  • Directive 2008/98/EC – It states that the waste policy should privilege the following order of actions (waste hierarchy): prevention, re-use, recycling, and other recovery. The project reduces the waste fraction destined to landfilling or incineration by increasing the recycling efficiency of Li-ion batteries. In addition, the project will demonstrate the possibility to recover from EoL Li-Ion batteries and re-use the graphite, which is a critical raw material, thus moving one step ahead the proposed process in the waste hierarchy.
  • Directive 1999/31/EC (Waste Landfill Directive): the implementation of this directive in DRONE will be ensured by the reduction of the unrecovered waste fraction destined to landfill.
  • Directive 2008/1/EC (Integrated Pollution Prevention Control) (IPPC): The proposed process will reduce the environmental impact associated to the recycle of primary lithium batteries compared to conventional pyrometallurgical processes thereby contributing to implement this directive.